Bluetooth is a standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of cellular phones, computers, and other electronic devices. In Linux, the canonical implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack is BlueZ.
- 1 Installation
- 2 Pairing
- 3 Configuration
- 4 Audio
- 5 Troubleshooting
- 5.1 gnome-bluetooth
- 5.2 Bluetooth USB Dongle
- 5.3 Logitech Bluetooth USB Dongle
- 5.4 hcitool scan: Device not found
- 5.5 rfkill unblock: Do not unblock
- 5.6 My computer is not visible
- 5.7 Logitech keyboard does not pair
- 5.8 HSP/HFP profiles
- 5.9 Foxconn / Hon Hai / Lite-On Broadcom device
- 5.10 Intel combined wifi and bluetooth cards
- 5.11 Device connects, then disconnects after a few moments
- 5.12 Device does not connect with an error in journal
- 5.13 Device does not show up in scan
- 5.14 Interference between Headphones and Mouse
- Install the bluez package, providing the Bluetooth protocol stack.
- Install the bluez-utils package, providing the bluetoothctl utility.
- The generic Bluetooth driver is the btusb Kernel module. Check whether that module is loaded. If it's not, then load the module manually or reboot.
- Start/enable bluetooth.service.
- Pairing a device from the shell with the bluetoothctl utility is one of the simplest and most reliable options. This will be installed already from the bluez-utils package.
The following packages allow for a graphical interface to customize Bluetooth.
- GNOME Bluetooth
- gnome-bluetooth provides the back-end
- gnome-shell provides the status monitor applet
- gnome-control-center provides the configuration front-end GUI that can be accessed by typing Bluetooth on the Activities overview, or with the gnome-control-center bluetooth command.
- You can also launch the bluetooth-sendto command directly to send files to a remote device.
- To receive files, open the Bluetooth settings panel; you can only receive whilst the Bluetooth panel is open.
- KDE bluedevil - If there is no Bluetooth icon visible in Dolphin and in the system tray, enable it in the system tray options or add a widget. You can configure Bluedevil and detect Bluetooth devices by clicking the icon. An interface is also available from the KDE System Settings.
- blueberry - Linux Mint's fork of GNOME Bluetooth, which works in all desktop environments. Blueberry does not support receiving files through Obex Object Push.
- blueman - A full featured GTK Bluetooth manager, which works in all desktop environments.
- obexftp/obextool = A tool for transferring files to/from any OBEX enabled device.
This section describes directly configuring bluez5 via the bluetoothctl CLI, which might not be necessary if you are using an alternative front-end tool (such as GNOME Bluetooth).
The exact procedure depends on the devices involved and their input functionality. What follows is a general outline of pairing a device using bluetoothctl.
Start the bluetoothctl interactive command. Input help to get a list of available commands.
- (optional) Select a default controller with select MAC_address.
- Enter power on to turn the power to the controller on. It is off by default and will turn off again each reboot, see #Auto power-on after boot.
- Enter devices to get the MAC Address of the device with which to pair.
- Enter device discovery mode with scan on command if device is not yet on the list.
- Turn the agent on with agent on or choose a specific agent: if you press tab twice after agent you should see a list of available agents, e.g. DisplayOnly KeyboardDisplay NoInputNoOutput DisplayYesNo KeyboardOnly off on.
- Enter pair MAC_address to do the pairing (tab completion works).
- If using a device without a PIN, one may need to manually trust the device before it can reconnect successfully. Enter trust MAC_address to do so.
- Enter connect MAC_address to establish a connection.
An example session may look this way:
# bluetoothctl [NEW] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 pi [default] [bluetooth]# agent KeyboardOnly Agent registered [bluetooth]# default-agent Default agent request successful [bluetooth]# power on Changing power on succeeded [CHG] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 Powered: yes [bluetooth]# scan on Discovery started [CHG] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 Discovering: yes [NEW] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 myLino [CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 LegacyPairing: yes [bluetooth]# pair 00:12:34:56:78:90 Attempting to pair with 00:12:34:56:78:90 [CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes [CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: no [CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes Request PIN code [agent] Enter PIN code: 1234 [CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Paired: yes Pairing successful [CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: no [bluetooth]# connect 00:12:34:56:78:90 Attempting to connect to 00:12:34:56:78:90 [CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes Connection successful
3.1 Auto power-on after boot
By default, your Bluetooth adapter will not power on after a reboot. The former method by using hciconfig hci0 up is deprecated. Now you just need to add the line AutoEnable=true in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf at the bottom in the [Policy] section:
In order to be able to use audio equipment like bluetooth headphones or speakers, you need to install the additional pulseaudio-bluetooth package. With a default PulseAudio installation you should immediately be able to stream audio from a bluetooth device to your speakers.
If you have a system-wide PulseAudio setup make sure the user running the daemon (usually pulse) is in the lp group and you load the bluetooth modules in your PulseAudio config:
... load-module module-bluetooth-policy load-module module-bluetooth-discover ...
Please have a look at the Bluetooth audio article for more information about bluetooth audio and bluetooth headsets.
If you see this when trying to enable receiving files in bluetooth-properties:
Bluetooth OBEX start failed: Invalid path Bluetooth FTP start failed: Invalid path
Then make sure that the XDG user directories exist.
5.2 Bluetooth USB Dongle
If you are using a USB dongle, you should check that your Bluetooth dongle is recognized. You can do that by running journalctl -f when you have plugged in the USB dongle (or inspecting /var/log/messages.log). It should look something like the following (look out for hci):
Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname kernel: [ 2661.349823] usb 4-1: new full-speed USB device number 3 using uhci_hcd Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd: HCI dev 0 registered Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd: Listening for HCI events on hci0 Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd: HCI dev 0 up Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd: Adapter /org/bluez/4568/hci0 has been enabled
If you only get the first two lines, you may see that it found the device but you need to bring it up. Example:
hciconfig -a hci0
hci0: Type: USB BD Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 ACL MTU: 0:0 SCO MTU: 0:0 DOWN RX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 events:0 errors:0 TX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 commands:0 errors:
# hciconfig hci0 up
hciconfig -a hci0
hci0: Type: USB BD Address: 00:02:72:C4:7C:06 ACL MTU: 377:10 SCO MTU: 64:8 UP RUNNING RX bytes:348 acl:0 sco:0 events:11 errors:0 TX bytes:38 acl:0 sco:0 commands:11 errors:0
To verify that the device was detected you can use hcitool which is part of the bluez-utils. You can get a list of available devices and their identifiers and their MAC address by issuing:
$ hcitool dev
Devices: hci0 00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40
More detailed information about the device can be retrieved by using hciconfig.
$ hciconfig -a hci0
hci0: Type: USB BD Address: 00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40 ACL MTU: 310:10 SCO MTU: 64:8 UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN RX bytes:1226 acl:0 sco:0 events:27 errors:0 TX bytes:351 acl:0 sco:0 commands:26 errors:0 Features: 0xff 0xff 0x8f 0xfe 0x9b 0xf9 0x00 0x80 Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3 Link policy: RSWITCH HOLD SNIFF PARK Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT Name: 'BlueZ (0)' Class: 0x000100 Service Classes: Unspecified Device Class: Computer, Uncategorized HCI Ver: 2.0 (0x3) HCI Rev: 0xc5c LMP Ver: 2.0 (0x3) LMP Subver: 0xc5c Manufacturer: Cambridge Silicon Radio (10)
5.2.1 Audio devices start to skip at short distance from dongle
If other devices share the same USB host, they can interrupt communication with audio devices. Make sure it is the only device attached to its bus. For example:
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 0a12:0001 Cambridge Silicon Radio, Ltd Bluetooth Dongle (HCI mode) Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 001 Device 004: ID 048d:1345 Integrated Technology Express, Inc. Multi Cardreader Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0424:a700 Standard Microsystems Corp. 2 Port Hub Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
5.3 Logitech Bluetooth USB Dongle
There are Logitech dongles (ex. Logitech MX5000) that can work in two modes: Embedded and HCI. In embedded mode dongle emulates a USB device so it seems to your PC that you are using a normal USB mouse/keyoard.
If you hold the little red Button on the USB BT mini-receiver it will enable the other mode. Hold the red button on the BT dongle and plug it into the computer, and after 3-5 seconds of holding the button, the Bluetooth icon will appear in the system tray.
Alternatively, you can install the bluez-hid2hci package. When you connect your Logitech dongle it will automatically switch.
5.4 hcitool scan: Device not found
- On some laptops (e.g. Dell Studio 15, Lenovo Thinkpad X1) you have to switch the Bluetooth mode from HID to HCI. Install the bluez-hid2hci package, then udev should do this automatically. Alternatively, you can run this command to switch to HCI manually:
- If the device will not show up and you have a Windows operating system on your machine, try booting it and enable the bluetooth adapter from windows.
- Sometimes also this simple command helps:
# hciconfig hci0 up
5.5 rfkill unblock: Do not unblock
If your device still soft blocked and you run connman, try this:
$ connmanctl enable bluetooth
5.6 My computer is not visible
Cannot discover computer from your phone? Enable PSCAN and ISCAN:
# enable PSCAN and ISCAN $ hciconfig hci0 piscan # check it worked
hci0: Type: USB BD Address: 00:12:34:56:78:9A ACL MTU: 192:8 SCO MTU: 64:8 UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN RX bytes:20425 acl:115 sco:0 events:526 errors:0 TX bytes:5543 acl:84 sco:0 commands:340 errors:0
Try changing device class in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf as following:
# Default device class. Only the major and minor device class bits are # considered. #Class = 0x000100 (from default config) Class = 0x100100
This was the only solution to make my computer visible for my phone.
5.7 Logitech keyboard does not pair
If you do not get the passkey when you try to pair your Logitech keyboard, type the following command:
# hciconfig hci0 sspmode 0
If after pairing, the keyboard still does not connect, check the output of hcidump -at. If the latter indicates repeatedly connections-disconnections like the following message:
status 0x00 handle 11 reason 0x13 Reason: Remote User Terminated Connection
then, the only solution for now is to install bluez v4.
5.8 HSP/HFP profiles
Likewise, bluez5 removed support for the HSP/HFP profiles used by older headset devices; so they may not work out of the box. In order to get those working, you would need to install PulseAudio (>= version 6), or another application that implements HSP/HFP itself.
5.9 Foxconn / Hon Hai / Lite-On Broadcom device
Some of these devices require the firmware to be flashed into the device at boot. The firmware is not provided by Parabola.
5.10 Intel combined wifi and bluetooth cards
If you have difficulty connecting a bluetooth headset and maintaining good downlink speed, try disabling bluetooth coexistence by adding the following line to /etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.conf:
options iwlwifi bt_coex_active=0
5.11 Device connects, then disconnects after a few moments
If you see messages like the following in journalctl output, and your device fails to connect or disconnects shortly after connecting:
bluetoothd: Unable to get connect data for Headset Voice gateway: getpeername: Transport endpoint is not connected (107) bluetoothd: connect error: Connection refused (111)
This may be because you have already paired the device with the same bluetooth adapter while using another operating system. Some devices cannot handle multiple pairings associated with the same MAC address (i.e., bluetooth adapter). You can fix this by re-pairing the device. Start by removing the device:
$ bluetoothctl [bluetooth]# devices Device XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX My Device [bluetooth]# remove XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
Then restart bluetooth.service, turn on your bluetooth adapter, make your device discoverable, re-scan for devices, and re-pair your device. Depending on your bluetooth manager, you may need to perform a full reboot in order to re-discover the device.
5.12 Device does not connect with an error in journal
If you see a message like the following in journalctl output while trying to connect to a device:
a2dp-source profile connect failed for 9C:64:40:22:E1:3F: Protocol not available
5.13 Device does not show up in scan
Some devices using bluetooth low energy do not appear when scanning with bluetoothctl, for example the Logitech MX Master. The simplest way I have found to connect them is by installing bluez-utils-compat, then start bluetooth.service and run the following commands:
# bluetoothctl [NEW] Controller (MAC) myhostname [default] [bluetooth]# power on [CHG] Controller (MAC) Class: 0x0c010c Changing power on succeeded [CHG] Controller (MAC) Powered: yes [bluetooth]# scan on Discovery started [CHG] Controller (MAC) Discovering: yes
In another terminal:
# hcitool lescan
Wait until your device shows up, then Ctrl+C hcitool. bluetoothctl should now see your device and pair normally.
5.14 Interference between Headphones and Mouse
If you experience audio stuttering while using a bluetooth mouse and keyboard simultaneously, you can try the following:
# hciconfig hci0 lm ACCEPT,MASTER # hciconfig hci0 lp HOLD,SNIFF,PARK