From ParabolaWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

wmii (window manager improved 2) is a dynamic window manager for X11. It supports classic and dynamic window management with extended keyboard, mouse, and filesystem based remote control. It replaces the workspace paradigm with a new tagging approach.

The following tips are intended to help the user get started with wmii. While wmii can be configured in almost any language, this article will focus on using the wmiirc configuration file, which is simply a shell script. Please see the ruby-wmii article to see how to configure wmii in ruby.

1 Installation

wmii is available from the extra repository. You can install it by issuing the following command:

pacman -S wmii

Next you will need to edit your ~/.xinitrc to enable you to start wmii with startx:

exec wmii

To allow for starting wmii without logging off or killing the X session, add the following in the ~/.xinitrc

until wmii; do

Upon your first login, you will be greeted with the wmii welcome message, which also includes a short tutorial on wmii. Completing this tutorial will give you a good idea on how wmii works.

Note: If the welcome message does not show up, make sure you have xmessage installed from the xorg-xmessage package. Then you can read the welcome by pressing $MODKEY-a and selecting 'welcome'.

2 Configuration

The easiest way to start configuring wmii, is to copy the default wmiirc file to your home directory and changing it to your needs. For version 3.9,

mkdir ~/.wmii
cp /etc/wmii/wmiirc ~/.wmii/

Or just create ~/.wmii/wmiirc_local if you want only basic customization such as fonts, colors etc.

For earlier versions,

mkdir ~/.wmii/wmii-$VERSION
cp /etc/wmii/wmiirc ~/.wmii/wmii-$VERSION/

By editing this file, you can change things such as color, background, modkey, etc. Keep in mind that wmiirc uses tabbed indentation in case your editor of choice is configured to only produce spaces. Mixing the two indenting styles may cause unexpected behavior.

2.1 Configuration Variables

# Configuration Variables

Change Mod1 to Mod4 if you want to use Windows key instead of Alt. You can also change h, j, k, l, if you like.

2.2 Window Colors

# Colors tuples: "<text> <background> <border>"
WMII_NORMCOLORS='#ffffff #000000 #ffffff'
WMII_FOCUSCOLORS='#ffffff #5c0000 #ffffff'

Colors of unselected window are in NORMCOLORS variable. Colors of selected window are in FOCUSCOLOR variable. You can change the background color (if you use transparent terminal) with the WMII_BACKGROUND variable.

3 Usage

If you are not familiar with tiling WMs, it's not really easy to begin with it. You must learn a few basic hotkeys to launch programs and place or resize windows. It is a good idea to write the basic hotkeys on paper and stick these on your monitor until you memorize them. By default, the "Mod" key is Alt. Some default hotkeys are :

   * Mod+Enter -> Terminal
   * Mod+p -> wimenu : a menu appears, just type the beginning of the name of the application 
     to open it.
   * Mod+d -> default layout : windows are divided on screen
   * Mod+s -> stacked layout : the selected window take all the screen, we just see the title 
     bar of the others.
   * Mod+j -> select the window below
   * Mod+k -> select the window above
   * Shift+Mod+j -> move the window down
   * Shift+Mod+k -> move the window up
   * Mod+a -> Actions menu : choose "quit" to quit

N.B. For commonly used programs you can make use of history.progs, Mod+p and up/down arrow keys to select previous entries.

By default, only one column is used by the desktop (i.e. the entire screen). It's possible to use several columns with h and l :

   * Mod+Shift+h : move the selected window left
   * Mod+Shift+l : move the selected window right
   * Mod+h : select the column on the left
   * Mod+l : select the column on the right 

Columns are created automatically, with your placements of the windows. You can make them bigger or smaller, clicking beetween two columns.

3.1 Layouts

You begin in "default" layout : all windows take the same space. You can make them bigger or smaller by clicking in the little square in the title bar of a window.

   * "stacked" layout (Mod+s) : the selected window takes the entire column, but you can see 
      the title bar of other windows.
   * "maximum" layout (Mod+m) : the selected window takes the entire column, you do not see 
      other windows.
   * "fullscreen" layout (Mod+f) : the selected window takes runs in full screen.

If you tend to use multiple clients in stacked view then binding the following allows you to remove all the title bars apart from the one you are viewing, regaining screen estate. Each client will be numbered in the top right with 1/3, 2/3 etc. Mod + s or Mod + d will return the view to standard layouts.

    *  fn Key-$MODKEY-x {wmiir xwrite /tag/sel/ctl colmode sel +max} # rc.wmii.local version
    *  Key $MODKEY-x
           wmiir xwrite /tag/sel/ctl colmode sel +max  # wmiirc version

3.1.1 Floating layout

You can place your windows like a classic window manager. It's called floating layout. It's useful for some applications, like the Gimp, mplayer, vlc etc.

   * Mod+Shift+Space : Move selected window in floating layout.
   * Mod+Space : switch between floating layout and normal layout. 

In the floating layout, we can select a window with Mod+j and Mod+k. We can change dimensions of the window, by dragging, like in any other window manager. But we can use hotkeys for that as well :

   * Mod+Left click : move window
   * Mod+Right click : change dimensions of the window (you can use it in other layouts too)

3.2 Views and Tagging

Tagging in wmii is very similar to the concept of virtual desktops in other window managers. However, tagging is slightly more powerful because it makes it very easy to group windows in multiple ways concurrently. This is made possible by the fact that WMII easily allows each window to have multiple tags. This allows you to group applications for specific use cases and easily switch between them without having to tear down your previous environment by sending applications to another "Desktop".

By default, when you first start up wmii you will see the word 'nil' in the lower left corner. You are at the 'nil' view. The first application you start (such as a terminal: Mod+Enter) will automatically be tagged with a "1" and you will be automatically switched to view "1". Views can be navigated or changed with built in keybindings:

   * Mod+Shift+2 : tag selected window to view "2"
   * Mod+2 : this switches you to view "2" where you can see all windows tagged with "2"

It's the same thing for all numbers, from 0 to 9. But you can also use names :

   * Mod+t : views menu : you can select a tag with right and left keys, or type the name 
     of the tag (or just a part of the name, if it was created).
   * Mod+Shift+t : this retags the currently selected window with whatever you type into 
     the menu.
   * N.B If using plan9port a history.tags file is generated in .wmii-*/. You can use 
     up/down arrow keys to recall previous entries for simple re-tagging/window viewing.

You can tag windows with multiple views by using a '+' between the tag names :

   * Mod+Shift+t foo+bar+2 : this tags the currently selected window to the views "foo",
     "bar" and "2".

You can remove a single tag from multi-tagged windows by selecting the one you wish to remove and using Mod+Shift+t, -tag name/number ie Urxvt is multi-tagged on views 1 2 3 and 4, if you jumped to 3 and typed exit, all instances of urxvt will be terminated, using Mod+Shift+t, -3 will only remove that single view.

Tags can be set for specific applications in the wmiirc configuration file.

# Tagging Rules
wmiir write /tagrules <<!
/Firefox.*/ -> ~+2
/Gimp.*/ -> ~+3
/.*/ -> sel
/.*/ -> 1

With the above tag rules, firefox starts in floating mode (~) on view "2". Gimp starts in floating mode on view "3".

Note: Applications need to spawn an X-window in order to be automatically assigned tags. Therefore, in order to launch your terminal based programs you will need to prepend something like urxvt -e <program> if want to make use of this feature.

4 WMII filesystem

WMII's filesystem is based on the 9P protocol. Every element (windows, statusbar, ...) is represented as a file. This makes several cool things possible. For example you can display the song you're currently listening to in the statusbar (for example with MPD and MPC).

Note: This filesystem is not permanent and you have to set up everything again after reboot. To make your changes "permanent" simply write the right commands into your wmiirc.

You can access the filesystem with the wmiir command. For instance, you can list the root directory with wmiir ls /


You can use wmiir read to look into files: wmiir read /tag/sel/index

# ~ 1280 785
~ 0x160000d 731 394 486 332 xterm:XTerm:~
# 1 0 1280
1 0x800003 0 785 opera:Opera:Editing Wmii - Preview - ArchWiki - Opera

So this is the info for the selected (current) tag. As you can see, I've got one floating xterm and Opera running on this tag. The first number in this output indicates the column of the window. ~ is the floating column and 1 ist (obviously) the first column. The second column is the XServer-ID for the client. The next columns are the coordinates and the size of the window. The last column ist the titlebar of the window.

You can create new files with wmiir create:

echo Parabola is best | wmiir create /rbar/parabola

Now you should see "Parabola is best" in your statusbar

"wmiir create" reads from STDIN. So you can pipe any information you like into your statusbar. "wmiir write" works in a similar fashion but doesn't create new files.

Note: Note for /rbar and /lbar:The elements in those status bars are in alphabetical order.

You can remove files with rm or remove

If you like to have a program on several tags you can use:

echo "3+5+8" | wmiir write /client/0x800003/tags

Now my Opera window appears on Tags 3,5 and 8.

But there are easier ways to accomplish this ;) Just type MOD+shift+t and enter "3+5+8" and you get the same result for the currently selected client.

Note: There's also the possibility to mount WMII's filesystem. Have a look at the official documentation.

5 Other nice stuff

5.1 Laptop Status Bar

If you are using wmii on a laptop, it may be convenient to display items such as wireless quality, remaining battery time, and load averages in the status bar; the script below requires you to install acpi and gawk:

pacman -S acpi gawk
# Status Bar Info
status() {
    echo -n ' Wlan0:' $(iwconfig wlan0 | awk '/Quality/{print $2}' | sed 's/.*=//' | awk -F"/" '{printf("%.0f%%", $1/$2*100)}') '| Bat:' $(acpi -b | sed -n 's/.*\([0-9][0-9]:[0-9][0-9]\):[0-9][0-9].*/\1/p') '|' $(uptime | sed 's/.*: //; s/,//g') '|' $(date '+%c')

By default the status bar only shows date and an uptime pager (displays system load average for the last 1, 5, 15 minutes).

5.2 Conky Replacement Status Bar

Similar to the above status() function any user can essentially replace the functions of the conky system monitor by using the wmii status bar. Below is an example of such to show CPU and GPU temperatures, CPU speeds, /home and / partition sizes, RAM used, system load averages and date/time:

# Status Bar Info
status() {
    echo -n 'CPUTemp:' `expr $(sensors | grep temp1 | awk '{print $2}' | cut -c2-3) + 15` '|' 'GPUTemp:' $(nvidia-settings -q=GPUCoreTemp | grep eagle | awk '{print $4}' | cut -c1-2 ) '|' 'CPUMHz:' $(cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep MHz | awk '{printf "%.0f\n", $4}') '|' '/home:' $(df -h | grep sda5 | awk '{print $3}') '|' '/:' $(df -h | grep sda1 | awk '{print $3}') '|' 'RAM:' $(free -m | grep -i /cache | awk '{print $3}') 'MB |' $(uptime | sed 's/.*://; s/,//g') '|' $(date +"%a %b %d %H:%M")

By judicious use of the info available from common GNU/Linux system commands, the /proc filesystem and GNU tools such as grep, awk, sed and cut you can create a highly informational wmii status bar. Note that the above is specific to the author's computer and will have to be edited to suit.

5.3 Terminal Title

If you would like to display the current directory in your terminal emulator's titlebar, add this to your .bashrc

WMII_IS_RUNNING=`ps a | grep wmii | awk '/[^"grep"] wmii$/'`
if [ -n "$WMII_IS_RUNNING" ]; then
  PROMPT_COMMAND='dirs | wmiir write /client/sel/label'

With this you can shorten you shell prompt and have more horizontal space to type. This test prevents you from getting a "WMII_ADRESS not set" error when you spawn a console.

5.4 Weechat Highlight Notification

If you use weechat and want to know when you have been messaged without always having to look at the weechat window, you can use the launcher.pl plugin to send a notice to the bar. To get this working, you will need to create a script that sends your desired notice. Here is very simple example:

echo :: NEW MESSAGE :: | wmiir create /lbar/alert
sleep 8
wmiir remove /lbar/alert

Then start weechat and load the plugin.

/perl load launcher.pl

Then type the following command into weechat:

/set plugins.var.perl.launcher.signal.weechat_pv = "/path/to/yourscript"

Now, :: NEW MESSAGE :: will appear in the left corner of your bar whenever you have a message highlight. Make sure to place launcher.pl the perl/autoload directory so that it starts when weechat starts.

5.5 Mod4 on an old Thinkpad

Although Wmii defaults to Mod1, using Mod4 reduces conflicts in keybindings with many terminal applications. There is a snag for old Thinkpad users, however. They do not have a Mod4 key. To get one, another key has to be assigned to it using xmodmap. To do it, make an .Xmodmap file in your home directory and add this to it:

keycode 64 = Super_L
add Mod4 = Super_L
remove Mod1 = Super_L

You will need to replace 64 with whatever xev tells you is the keycode of the key you want to replace. In the above example, I replace left Alt (and use right alt for applications).

5.6 Nice fonts

Wmii now supports Xft, just prefix font name with 'xft'. For instance:

export WMII_FONT='xft:Sans-9'

5.7 Note: Version 3.9.2-1

If you upgrade from wmii v3.6-4 to v3.9.2-1 you will have to insert any changes you made to your old ~/.wmii-3.5/wmiirc configuration file into the newer config file located at ~/.wmii/wmiirc_local. Note also that there are some slight format and variable name changes between the newer and older versions of /etc/wmii/wmiirc.

This latest version has some significant enhancements such as easier window dimension changes with the mouse and better handling of small floating windows launched from tiled applications (especially LibreOffice).

6 Other Resources

  • wmii -- the official website of wmii
  • dmenu -- a simple application launcher which binds well with dwm and wmii
  • user guide -- latest wmii guide (pdf)
  • ruby-wmii -- Ruby configuration and scripting for wmii 3.1
  • sunaku's wmiirc -- Ruby configuration and scripting for wmii 3.9+ and wmii-hg
  • Ben's wmiirc (fork) -- Simple wmiirc with extra widgets (vol, mpd, mail, clock) and other modifications
  • mailing list is dev@suckless.org, see official website
  • IRC channel is #wmii on the OFTC IRC network

7 Acknowledgement

This wiki article is based on ArchWiki. We may have removed non-FSDG bits from it.